History of the bell tower of St. Bartholomew's Church
The defensive tower at the church of St. Bartholomew was built in the 1550-1551 biennium. For the construction of the tower, the city signed a contract with the mason Jan Grendos of Przemysl. To the construction of the third floor were involved Yosif Lihna, a member of the local brick workshop Bartholomew Khochinsky, local craftsmen - copter Nicholas and coachman Franzisk.
According to the lustration of Drohobych in 1663/1664, the road from the city to the tower passed through the oak bridge (obviously the lifting), the entrance passed through the wooden gates. Between the floors, which were paved stairs, a wooden floor was arranged. On the arsenal of the tower were seven iron guns.
In the visitation of 1743 the object was called a bell tower. She had 20 windows, a roof covered with screws, which ended with an iron cross. On the right side of the building was a prison. The bell had three bells.
At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, during the rule of the ks. Ignacy Yarotsky, the monument was rebuilt, especially the third floor was demolished (a disassembled brick was used to erect a chapel of the Mother of God Ruzhantsovaya at the church). The fire in 1802 destroyed the roof of the bell tower.
In the early 80's of the nineteenth century. during the restoration work the bell was returned to its primeval appearance (the work was carried out under the draft of Edmund Leon Soletsky, at the final stage other specialists were involved, including Pshibilovsky). Thus, the third floor was completed (1883). In this form, the bell tower has been preserved to this day. The walls of the completed floor on both sides (from the city and the church) are decorated with arcatural friezes, which are typical of different styles.
Sources recorded the bells: "Jesus of Nazareth" (1559), "St. Jan the Baptist "(master Jan Stjelecki, 1739), St. Peter (1739)," Vladislav Ignatius "(1879, master Wilhelm Götlicher). During the First World War, the Austrians recaptured most of the bells. In 1926 the community compensated for losses: to the bell "St. Bartholomew ", who survived the war, was added three more small bells (weighing 125, 85 and 63 kg.). During the German occupation, smaller bells were requisitioned.
In 1914, regular restoration and construction work was carried out: on the first floor was overcoated with a vaulted type and his artistic decoration was done by Tadeusz Rybkovsky. The belfry adapted to the needs of the funeral rite.
The monument at different times was studied by A. Petrushevich, E.L. Soletsky, V. Dziedusytsky, A. Petrushevich, M. M. Mtsivuyevsky, M. Horn, S. Yurchenko, T. Zauha, L. Tymoshenko.
In 2015-2017 the monument was explored by the archaeological expedition of the Research Laboratory of Archeology and Local History of the Historical Faculty of the Drogobych State Pedagogical University named after. I. Franko (leaders of the expedition are R. Myska, Y. Lukomsky, L. Tymoshenko, scientific staff V. Menko and B. Lazorak, trainees are students of the first years of the history faculty).
In the season of field works of 2015 - 2016, excavations were carried out using a reconnaissance trench constructed perpendicular to constructive axes. For the first research season, the western wall of the tower was chosen, and for the second - the eastern one.
In the trench of 2015, the outside of the tower on the part of the church found a brick foundation of the Gothic type. Also, the masonry collector is investigated, which touches the tower's base, returns in the northern direction at a depth of 55-65 cm (approximate dating is the end of the 18th - the beginning of the nineteenth century). The reconnaissance trench reveals a complex of eight incomplete human burials carried out in a typical Christian tradition.
Inside the object between the markings 1,35 1,75 m, a firearm was found on the Cossack era: a cannon (length 130 cm, diameter 5,5-6 cm, caliber 3 cm, XVI century) and three identical hookahs ( length: 83 cm and 80 cm, diameter - 3.5 cm, caliber - 2 cm). During the researches of 2015, 57 coins of the XVI-XIX centuries were discovered: 11 silver and 46 copper.
During excavations in 2015, the expedition discovered a variety of ceramic materials: building materials (tiles, roofs and bricks), fragments of dishes from the XVI-XVII centuries. (pots and covers to them, junk, bowls), fragments of a cradle (ХVІ - ХVІІІ centuries), glass ware of the ХVІ-ХVІІ centuries. (fragments of glasses, mugs, bottles).
During the performed work, a large number of finds were discovered: about 70 copper and silver coins of the 16th-18th centuries, several hundred fragments of ceramics, trash remains, fragments of loose glass, two ceramic cradles of the Cossack era, various pieces of wood, balls for firearms of different caliber, two metal knives, bricks of different times, and others. Several fragments of jewelry are raised, as well as an exceptionally well-preserved stand to a sacred item (cross or candlestick) made of silver. Chronologically, fragments of the dishes cover a significant period of time - from the fourteenth to the nineteenth century.
In 2016, the trench was laid further along the axis of the road, which once led from the Market Square. In a trench measuring 6 m 2 m, a defensive ditch was discovered. The second trench is laid inside the tower. Both trenches cut the foundation of the tower under the gate leading to the city center. The tower is digged to the mainland to a depth of 2.10 m, from the outside - up to 3.5 m.
44 coins of the 16th - early 20th centuries were found: 2 silver, 40 copper and 2 bronze. Coins suggest a time to fill the underground floor (from the end of the XVIII century.). At the same time, in Drohobych, defensive shafts were destroyed and dumps were covered.
The study of the foundations showed that they are a regular brick wall, made in a gothic style (a felted brick - 28 28,5 × 14 14,5 × 7,5 8.0 cm, enclosed by the canals downwards). The faces are lined with brick, and the inner core of the wall is from the river sandstone. The width of the core core is 2.20 m. The total width of the foundation wall is 3.17 m., The outside is 70 cm, and the center is 170 cm. The probability of having an underground building was arranged. Detection of ceramics ХІV-ХV centuries. allows to pre-assume that at the time of the construction of the tower, in the middle of the seventeenth century, a plot in front of or around it (at least from the Market) was populated earlier.
Riv under the tower laid under the very foundation. This circumstance may be an explanation for solving the almost incredible size of the tower's foundations. At the same time, the foundation lies a bit deeper to the bottom of the ditch. The found fragments of the tree could be elements of some fortifications, perhaps a lifting bridge through the ditch. Its existence is recorded in synchronous sources of that time, as well as in the traces of piles in different parts of the moat at different depths. The pallets could be based on the design of the bridge. Dendrochronological analysis of fragments of beams discovered in the meadow dates them to the nineteenth century. An underground passage was found in the basement inside the tower.
Professor Leonid Tymoshenko